2. Any act of violence attacking the integrity and inviolability of the territory or the political independence of the other High Contracting Party shall be regarded as an act of aggression, even if it is committed without declaration of war and avoids warlike manifestations.
Protocol to the first article.
In conformity with the provisions of Article IV of the present Treaty, the Agreement of June 1, 1922 regarding measures ensuring the inviolability of the frontiers shall not be affected by the provisions of the present Treaty and shall continue to remain fully in force.
1. Should either High Contracting Party be the object of aggression on the part of one or more third Powers, the other High Contracting Party undertakes to maintain neutrality throughout the duration of the conflict.
2. Should either High Contracting Party resort to aggression against a third Party, the other High Contracting Party may denounce the present Treaty without notice.
Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes not to become a party of any treaty, agreement or convention which is openly hostile to the other party or contary, whether formally or in substance, to the present Treaty.
The obligations mentioned in the preceding Articles of the present Treaty may in no case affect or modify the international rights or obligations of the High Contracting parties under agreements concluded or undertakings assumed before the coming into force of the present Treaty, in so far as such agreements contain no elements of aggression within the meaning of the present Treaty.
The High Contracting Parties declare that they will always endeavour to settle in a spirit of justice any disputes of whatever nature or origin which may arise between them, and will resort exclusively to pacific means of settling such disputes. For this purpose, the High Contracting parties undertake to submit any disputes which may arise between them after the signature of the present Treaty, and which it may not have been possible to settle through diplomatic proceedings within a reasonable time, to a procedure of conciliation before a joint conciliation commission whose powers, composition and working shall be fixed by a special supplementary Convention, which shall form an integral part of the present Treaty and which the High Contracting Parties undertake to conclude as soon as possible and in any event before the present treaty is ratified. Conciliation procefure shall also be applied in the event of any dispute as to application or interpretation of a Convention concluded between the High Contracting Parties, and particularly the question whether the mutual undertaking as to non-aggression has or has not been violated.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Moscow.
The present Treaty shall enter into force at the moment of the exchange of the instruments of ratification.
The present Treaty is concluded for three years. If it is not denounced by one of the High Contracting Parties, after a notice not less than six months before the expiry of that period, it shall be automatically renewed for a new period of two years.
The present Treaty is drawn up in duplicate in French at Helsinki on the 21st of January, 1932.
In faith thereof, the plenipotentiaries has signed the present Treaty and have attached their seals on it.
A. S. Yrjö-Koskinen.
The instruments of ratification were exchanged at Moscow on the 9th of August 1932.
The Protocol prolonging the Treaty of Non-Aggression up to 31 December 1945.
This translation is published in the book "The Major International Treaties 1914-1973" by J.A.S. Grenville, London 1974. The omitted parts describing some technicalities are completed by Pauli Kruhse. An other translation in the book: Against Aggression. Speeches by Maxim Litvinov (pp. 148-151). International Publishers Co Inc., New York. Printed in Great Britain. 1939.
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